Old English Core Vocabulary (2023)

The list below presents some 500 Old English words which could be regarded as literary core vocabulary. Some of the words are among the most frequent in Old English literature; some are of particular importance on account of their literary or linguistic usage. The reference ‘poet.’ signals predominant usage of a word in poetry. The cognates in a number of related languages are intended to make memorisation of the words easier. A word signalled as ‘hapax legomenon’ is found only once in the entire Old English corpus, and was possibly coined for the passage in question.

This list of Old English Core Vocabulary is intended as a teaching aid: the idea is that students learn this list of words by heart. It can be used in undergraduate or postgraduate Old English teaching, either for compulsory or optional assessments, or just for background. Tests can be made easier or harder, depending on whether the examined translation is from Old English to Modern English, or vice versa, or both, and depending on how much time students are allowed to memorise the vocabulary.

I try to keep the word list as stable as possible; the insertion of updates and corrections is limited to one week during the summer, when students are unlikely to be using it formally. There are no plans for moving this page to another address. If you have any corrections, comments, or questions, please feel free to contact me by emailing cr30@st-andrews.ac.uk.

Languages are abbreviated as follows: OE = Old English; MnE = Modern English; MnG = Modern German; MnDu = Modern Dutch; MnDa = Modern Danish; MnScots = Modern Scots; MnSw = Modern Swedish; L = Latin; MedL = Medieval Latin; MedGr = Medieval Greek.

Old English Core Vocabulary

abutan, adv., about, around
ac, conj., but, however
acennan, verb, bring forth, give birth to
acwellan, verb, to kill
adl, noun, f., sickness, disease
agen, adj., own
aglæca, noun, m., monster, combatant, the terrible one (poet.)
ahwær, adv., anywhere
alimpan, verb, befall, come to pass
alyfan, verb, to permit, allow
amyrran, verb, to wound (cp. MnE to mar)
an, numeral, a, an, one
and, conj., and
anda, noun, m., malice, hostility
andgit, noun, n., meaning, sense
andsaca, noun, m., enemy, adversary (cp. MnG Widersacher)
andswarian, verb, to answer
andweard, adj., present
andwlita, noun, m., face (cp. MnG Antlitz)
andwyrdan, verb, to answer (cp. MnG antworten)
anfeald, adj., simple, onefold (cp. MnG einfältig)
anfloga, noun, m., solitary flier (hapax legomenon, The Seafarer)
angel, noun, m., hook (cp. MnE angle)
anginn, noun, n., beginning
anhaga, noun, m., solitary one, one who dwells alone (poet.)
anlicnes, noun, f., image
anræd, adj., resolute
anwealda, noun, m., ruler, Lord (poet.)
ar, noun, n., copper (cp. MnE ore)
ar, noun, f, honour, mercy, favour, prosperity
ar, noun, f., oar
ariht, adv., properly
arisan, verb, to arise

arleas, adj., dishonourable
arlice, adv,. honourably, kindly
arod, adj., bold
arweorþe, adj., honourable
asecgan, verb, to say, tell

astyrian, verb, to remove, to move (cp. MnE to stir)
atelic, adj., horrible, dreadful
ateon, verb, to draw, unsheathe
atol, adj., terrible, hateful (poet.)
attor, noun, n., venom (cp. MnG Eiter)
, noun, m., oath
awiht, noun, n., anything (cp. MnE aught)
axian, verb, to ask
æ, noun, f., law (cp. MnG Ehe)
æcer, noun, m., cultivated field (cp. MnE acre)
æfæst, adj., pious
æfen, noun, m., evening (cp. MnE even, eve)
æfre, adv., forever, always, ever
æfter, prep., after
æfterfylgan, verb, to follow, to come after
æghwa, pron., everyone, everything
æghwær, adv., everywhere
ægþer, pron., each, both, either
æht, noun, f., possessions, property
æl, noun, m., eel
ælc, pron., adj., each, every
ælfscyne, adj., beautiful as a fairy (3 occurrences, poet.)
ælmihtig, adj., almighty
æmettig, adj., empty
ænig, adj., any
ær, adv., before, previously (cp. MnE ere)
ærende, noun, n., message (cp. MnE errand)
ærest, adj., first
ærgewinn, noun, n., ancient hostility (hapax legomenon, The Dream of the Rood)
ærgod, adj., good from old times (5 occurrences, only in Beowulf)

ærnan, verb, to run
æsc, noun, m., ash tree, spear
æscplega, noun, m., spear-fight, battle (hapax legomenon, Judith)
æscrof, adj., brave in battle
æstel, noun, m., ?pointer used to keep one’s place as one reads (4 occurrences)
æt, prep., at
ætgædere, adv., together
ætsomne, adv., together
ætywan, verb, to appear, to show
æþele, adj., noble
æþeling, noun, m., prince, atheling
æþelo, noun, n. pl., origin, descent, noble lineage
baldlice, adv., boldly
bana, noun, m., slayer (cp. MnE bane, poet.)
banhus, noun, n., body (‘bone-house’, 6 occurrences, poet.)
banloca, noun, m., ‘bone-enclosure’, ?muscles, ?body (5 occurrences, poet.)
bar, noun, m., boar
bat, noun, m., boat
baþian, verb, to bathe
bæc, noun, n., back
bæcere, noun, m., baker
bæl, noun, n., fire, funeral pyre (poet.)
bærnan, verb, to burn
bæþ, noun, n., bath
be, prep., about, concerning
beacen, noun, n., beacon, sign
beadu, noun, m., battle (15 occurrences, poet.)
beadurinc, noun, m., warrior (3 occurrences, poet.)
beadurof, adj., bold in battle (8 occurrences, poet.)
beag, noun, m., circular ornament (around neck, wrist, finger etc.), ring (cp. MnE bagel)
beaggyfa, noun, m., ring-giver, lord (7 occurrences, poet.)
beaggyfu, noun, f., ring-giving, generosity (hapax legomenon, poet.)
beaghord, noun, n., ring-hoard, treasure (3 occurrences, all in Beowulf)
bealdor, noun, m., lord (10 occurrences, poet.)
bealu, noun, n., misery, harm, injury, enmity
bealuhygdig, adj., intending evil, hostile (hapax legomenon, Beowulf)
bealusiþ, noun, m., painful journey, bitter experience (2 occurrences, poet.)
beam, noun, m., tree, cross
bearm, noun, m., bosom, lap
bearn, noun, n., child, son (cp. MnE dialect bairn)
bearu, noun, m., grove
bebeodan, verb, to command
gebed, noun, n., prayer
bedælan, verb, to deprive
begen, adj. and pron., both
begeondan, prep., beyond
begietan, verb, to get, to acquire
beginnan, verb, to begin
begnornian, verb, to lament
beheafdian, verb, to behead, decapitate
behreowsian, verb, to repent
benc, noun, f., bench
benn, noun, f., wound (9 occurrences, poet.)
beon, verb, to be
beor, noun, n., beer
beorg, noun, m., hill, mound, mountain (cp. MnG Berg)
beorgan, verb, to save, protect
beorht, adj., bright
beorn, noun, m., man, warrior (poet.)
gebeorscipe, noun, m., beer party
beot, noun, n., vow, boast
beran, verb, to carry, bear
berstan, verb, to burst
beswican, verb, to deceive, ensnare
bet, adv., better
gebetan, verb, to improve, remedy
betweonan, prep., between (cp. MnE between)
betweox, prep., between
bidan, verb, to await, experience
biddan, verb, to ask, bid
gebiddan, verb, to pray
bifian, verb, to shake (cp. MnG beben)
bigong, noun, m., worship
bill, noun, n., sword (poet., cp. MnG Beil)
bisgu, noun, f., occupation (cp. MnE busy)
bitan, verb, to bite
blac, adj., pale (cp. MnE bleak)
blawan, verb, to blow
blæc, adj., black
blæd, noun, m., glory
bletsian, verb, to bless
blod, noun, n., blood
boc, noun, f., book
bodian, verb, to preach (cp. MnE to bode)
bolster, noun, n., pillow (cp. MnE bolster)
bricg, noun, f., bridge
brim, noun, n., sea (poet.)
broga, noun, m., terror, danger
broþor, noun, m., brother
brucan, verb, to use, enjoy, benefit from (cp. L fruor, MnG gebrauchen)
brun, adj., brown, black, purple, red (cp. MnE brown)
brytta, noun, m., distributor, one who hands out (poet.)
burh, noun, f., stronghold, enclosure (cp. MnE borough, MnG Burg)
butan, prep., without, except, but
byrgan, verb, to bury
bysig, adj., busy
bysmor, noun, m., disgrace, mockery
casere, noun, m., emperor (cp. MnE Caesar, MnG Kaiser)
ceald, adj., cold
geceapian, verb, to buy (cp. MnE cheap)
ceaster, noun, f., town (cp. L castrum, MnE -chester, eg. Manchester, Winchester)
cempa, noun, m., warrior
cicen, noun, n., chicken
cirice, noun, f., church (cp. MedGr kuriakon)
clipian, verb, to call
clyppan, verb, to embrace (cp. MnE paperclip)
gecnawan, verb, to recognise, perceive, understand
cniht, noun, m., boy, youth
cringan, verb, to fall, perish (poet., cp. MnE cringe)
cuman, verb, to come
cunnan, verb, to know
cunnian, verb, to find out
cwellan, verb, to kill
cwen, noun, f., woman, queen (cp. MnE gynaecology)
cwic, adj., alive (cp. MnE quick)
cyning, noun, m., king
cyse, noun, m., cheese (cp. L caseum)
cyþan, verb, to make known, inform, reveal
dæd, noun, f., deed
dæg, m., day
dæl, noun, m., part, portion (cp. MnE deal)
dema, noun, m., judge (cp. MnE to deem)
deofol, noun, m. or n., devil
deop, adj., deep
deor, noun, n., wild animal (cp. MnE deer, MnG Tier)
deorc, adj., dark
digol, adj., secret
dom, noun, m., judgement (cp. MnE doom)
don, verb, to do
dream, noun, m., joy, delight
dreogan, verb, to suffer (cp. MnScots adj. driech)
dreor, noun, m. or n., dripping blood (11 occurrences, poet., cp. MnE dreary)
drihten, noun, m., lord
dugan, verb, to be of use (MnG taugen, tüchtig)
duguþ, noun, f., troop of seasoned retainers, mature men (MnG taugen, tüchtig, Tugend)
durran, verb, to dare
duru, noun, f., door
gedwyld, noun, n., heresy, error
dyre, adj., dear (cp. MnG teuer)
dyrne, adj., secret
dysig, adj., foolish (cp. MnE dizzy)
ea, noun, f., river (cp. L aqua)
eac, adv., also
eadig, adj., blessed, happy (Ead-, cp. Christian names Edward, Edwin)
eald, adj., old
ealdor, noun, m., leader, prince (cp. MnE alderman)
ealdor, noun, n., life, age
eallwealda, noun, m., all-ruler, the Lord (poet.)
earfoþ, noun, n., work, hardship (MnE robot, MnG Arbeit)
earm, adj., poor (MnG arm)
ece, adj., eternal
ecg, noun, f., edge, sword
eft, adv., again
ege, noun, m., fear
ellen, noun, n., courage, strength
engel, noun, m., angel
ent, noun, m., giant (cp. Tolkien’s Ents)
eorl, noun, m., nobleman
faran, verb, to go, travel (cp. MnE farewell)
fæder, noun, m., father
fæger, adj., beautiful, pleasant (cp. MnE fair)
, noun, f., virgin, woman
feax, noun, n., hair (cp. Tolkien’s Shadowfax)
fela, pron., many
feond, noun, m., enemy
feor, adj., far
feorh, noun, n., life
ferhþ, noun, m., spirit, mind (poet.)
fleogan, verb, to fly
folde, noun, f., earth, ground
folme, noun, f., hand (MnE palm)
fon, verb, to catch, seize
forhtian, verb, to fear
forlætan, verb, to abandon, let go, neglect
forma, adj., first
forst, noun, m., frost
frætwe, noun, f. pl., ornaments (poet.)
frea, noun, m., lord (poet., cp. MnG Frau)
fremde, adj., strange (cp. MnG fremd)
fremman, verb, to do, perpetrate (cp. MnG fromm)
friþ, noun, m., peace (cp. MnG Frieden)
frod, adj., old, wise (poet., cp. Tolkien’s Frodo)
frofor, noun, f., consolation
fruma, noun, m., beginning
fugol, noun, m., bird (cp. MnE fowl)
fultum, noun, m., help, support
fus, adj., eager
fyr, noun, n., fire
fyren, noun, f., crime, wickedness
galan, verb, to sing (cp. MnE nightingale, to yell)
gamol, adj., old, ancient (poet.) (cp. MnDa gammel, MnG vergammeln)
gan, verb, to go
gar, noun, m., spear (poet., cp. Hrothgar in Beowulf)
gast, noun, m., spirit, soul, angel, ghost
gear, noun, n., year
geard, noun, m., yard, enclosure (cp. Tolkien’s Isengard)
geomor, adj., sad (poet., cp. MnG Jammer)
geond, prep., through, throughout
geong, adj., young
georn, adj., eager (cp. MnE to yearn, MnG gerne)
giedd, noun, n., word, speech, riddle (poet., cp. MnE to gather)
giefu, noun, f., gift
giet, adv., yet, still
gif, conj., if
gioguþ, noun, f., youth, young people
gnornian, verb, to mourn
god, adj., good
god, noun, m., God

grædig, adj., greedy
griþ, noun, n., truce
guma, noun, m., man (poet., cp. MnE ?bridegroom, MnG Bräutigam)
guþ, noun, f., battle, war (poet.)
gylp, noun, m., boast, pride (cp. MnE to yelp)
gyse, adv., yes
habban, verb, to have
hal, adj., safe, unhurt (cp. MnE whole)
halig, adj., holy
ham, noun, m., home
hat, adj., hot
hatan, verb, to command, order, call, name (cp. MnG heissen)
hælan, verb, to heal
Hælend, noun, m., Saviour (cp. MnG Heiland)
hæleþ, noun, m., hero (poet., cp. MnG Held)
hæþen, adj., heathen
heafod, noun, n., head
heah, adj., high
hearh, noun, m., heathen shrine (cp. place-name Harrow)
heaþorinc, m., warrior (poet.)
helm, noun, m., protection, cover, helmet
heofon, noun, m., heaven
heorot, noun, m., deer, stag (cp. MnE hart, Heorot in Beowulf)
here, noun, m., army (cp. MnG Heer)
hergian, verb, to ravage (cp. MnE to harry)
hild, noun, f., battle (cp. Christian name Hilda)
hlaf, noun, m., bread (cp. MnE loaf)
hlaford, noun, m., lord (cp. OE hlaf, bread, hlaford=hlafweard, the one in charge of the bread)
hlæw, noun, m., mound, barrow (cp. place-names Lewes, Wilmslow, Ludlow)
hleo, noun, n., protection, shelter
holt, noun, n., wood, forest (cp. MnG Holz)
hord, noun, n., hoard
hu, adv., how
hund, noun, m., dog (cp. MnE hound)
hus, noun, n., house
hwa, pron., who
hwæt, pron., what
hwær, adv., where
hwæþer, conj., whether
hwelc, pron. and adj., which
hwil, noun, f., while
hycgan, verb, to think, plan
hyge, noun, m., mind, heart, courage (poet., cp. MnDu geheugen, Hygelac in Beowulf)
hyht, noun, m., joy, bliss, hope
hyrde, noun, m., guardian, keeper (cp. MnE shepherd)
hyse, noun, m., warrior (poet.)
ic, pron., I
ides, noun, f., lady (poet.)
ilca, adj. and pron., same (cp. MnE ilk)
isen, noun, n., iron (cp. MnG Eisen, Tolkien’s Isengard)
lac, noun, n., play, sacrifice, offering (cp. MnE to lark)
laf, noun, f., remnant, what is left (cp. MnE to leave)
lagu, noun, f., law
lar, noun, f., teaching (cp. MnE lore)
laþ, adj., hateful, hostile (cp. MnE loathsome, Tolkien's Lathspell)
læne, adj., temporary, transitory, granted, lent
leas, adj., devoid of (cp. MnE -less)
leax, noun, m., salmon (cp. MnSw gravad lax)
leode, noun, pl., people (cp. MnG Leute)
leof, adj., beloved, dear (cp. MnE love, MnG lieb)
leoht, noun, n., light
leoþ, noun, n., song, poem, poetry (cp. MnG Lied)
lic, noun, n., body (cp. MnG Leiche)
lichama, noun, m., body (cp. MnG Leichnam)
lif, noun, n., life
lind, noun, f., shield (of lindenwood)
lof, noun, n., praise (cp. MnG Lob)
lofgeorn, adj., eager for praise (cp. Beowulf 3182)
lufu, noun, f., love
lyft, noun, f., air, sky, breeze (cp. MnG Luftwaffe)
magan, verb, to be able, can, be competent (cp. MnE may)
man, n., crime
manig, adj., many
mann, n., person, human being
maþelian, verb, to speak (poet.)
maþm, m., treasure
mæg, noun, m., kinsman
mægen, n., strength, power, army (cp. MnE main)
mægþ, noun, f., maiden
mære, adj., famous, glorious, notorious (cp. MnG Märchen)
mearc, noun, f., boundary, region, border (cp. MnE Denmark)
mearh, m., horse (cp. MnE mare)
mece, noun, m., sword (poet.)
meodo, noun, m., mead (cp. Tolkien’s Meduseld)
meotod, noun, m., creator (poet., literally ‘the measurer’, cp. MnE meted out)
mere, noun, m., pool, lake
micel, adj., great, large, much
mid, prep., with, amid, among
middangeard, noun, m., world, middle earth (cp. Tolkien’s middle earth)
miht, noun, f., might
mod, noun, n., spirit, courage, mind (cp. MnE mood)
modig, adj., brave, bold, arrogant (cp. MnE moody)
modor, noun, f., mother
mona, noun, m., moon
morþor, noun, n., crime, violence, torment (cp. MnE murder, Tolkien’s Mordor)
motan, verb, to may, be allowed to (cp. MnE must)
mund, noun, f., hand, protection (cp. MnG Vormund)
gemynd, noun, n., mind, remembrance
mynster, noun, n., monastery, church (cp. MnE minster)]
nædre, noun, f., snake, serpent
næss, noun, m., headland, bluff (cp. Fife Ness)
neah, adj., near
neorxnawang, noun, m., Paradise (OE wang, noun, m., field)
niman, verb, to take (cp. MnE numb, MnG nehmen)
niþ, noun, m., hatred, malice, trouble (cp. MnG Neid)
genog, adj., enough
nu, adv., now
nytt, noun, f., use, utility (cp. MnG Nutzen, MnDu nuttig)
ofer, prep., over
ofermod, noun, n., pride, arrogance, overconfidence (cp. The Battle of Maldon 89)
offrian, verb, to offer
oft, adv., often
onfon, verb, to receive, accept, take up (cp. MnG empfangen)
ongean, adv., back, again
ongietan, verb, to understand, perceive
onginnan, verb, to begin
ord, noun, m., point, spear, vanguard
oþer, adj., other
oþ þæt, conj., until
oþþe, conj., or
pæþ, noun, m., path
penig, noun, m., penny
preost, noun, m., priest (cp. MedL presbyter)
rand, noun, m., shield, shield-boss (poet.)
ræd, noun, m., advice (cp. MnG Rat)
rædan, verb, to read, instruct, give counsel, rule
gereord, noun, n., speech, voice
rice, noun, n., kingdom (cp. MnE bishopric, MnG Reich)
rice, adj., powerful, great (cp. MnE rich)
rinc, noun, m., man, warrior (poet.)
rod, noun, f., rood, cross
rodor, noun, m., sky, heaven
run, noun, f., secret meditation (cp. MnG raunen)
sacu, noun, f., battle
samod, adv., together, too, at the same time
sar, adj., sore
sarig, adj., sorrowful (cp. MnE sorry)
sawol, noun, f., soul
, noun, f. and m., sea
sceadu, noun, f., shadow
scealc, noun, m., man, warrior (cp. MnE marshal=officer of state)
sceat, noun, m., surface, region (cp. MnE sheet)
sceatt, noun, m., money, payment (cp. MnE scotfree)
sceþþan, verb, to injure (cp. MnE scathing)
sceawian, verb, to see, look at (cp. MnE to show, MnG schauen)
scieppan, verb, to create (cp. MnG schöpfen)
sculan, verb, to must, have to (cp. MnE shall, should)
se, seo, þæt, pron., the
secan, verb, to seek
secg, noun, m., man, warrior (poet.)
secgan, verb, to say
sefa, noun, m., heart (poet.)
sele, noun, m., hall, house (poet.)
sellan, verb, to give, sell
sendan, verb, to send, throw, hurl, cause to go
seon, verb, to see
gesib, adj., related (cp. MnE sibling)
sibb, noun, f., peace (cp. MnE gossip)
sige, noun, m., victory (cp. Christian name Siegfried, MnG Sieg)
simle, adv., always
sinc, noun, n., treasure
singal, adj., perpetual
siþ, noun, m., journey, fate, lot, venture
siþþan, adv., since, afterwards, later
slean, verb, to strike, beat (cp. MnE slay)
smeagan, verb, to think, examine
snottor, adj., wise (poet.)
sona, adv., immediately, soon
sorg, noun, f., sorrow, grief, trouble
soþ, adj., true (cp. MnE sooth)
sped, noun, f., success, quickness (cp. MnE good speed, Godspeed, MnG sputen)
spell, noun, n., story, message (cp. MnE gospel, OE god + spel=good message, Tolkien's Lathspell)
sprecan, verb, to speak (cp. MnG sprechen)
stan, noun, m., stone
stefn, noun, f., voice (cp. MnG Stimme)
stow, noun, f., place (cp. place-names Felixstowe, Walthamstow)
stræl, noun, m. or f., arrow (cp. MnG Strahl)
sum, adj. and pron., a, a certain, some
gesund, adj., unharmed, whole, uncorrupted (cp. MnE sound)
sunne, noun, f., sun
sunu, noun, m., son
swa, adv., so, thus
sweart, adj., dark, black (cp. MnE swarthy)
swefn, noun, n., dream
swelc, adj., such
sweord, noun, n., sword
sweostor, noun, f., sister
sweotol, adj., clear, manifest
swincan, verb, labour, toil, struggle
swiþe, adv., very, greatly
symbel, noun, n., feast
syn, noun, f., crime, sin
teon, verb, to draw, drag (cp. MnG ziehen)
tid, noun, f., time (cp. MnE tide)
til, adj., good
tir, noun, m., glory (cp. MnG Zier)
torht, adj., bright
treow, noun, n., tree
treow, noun, f., faith, trust, loyalty (cp. MnE truth)
tun, noun, m., town, village
tungol, noun, n., star
twegen, num., two (cp. MnE twain, Mark Twain)
tweo, noun, m., doubt, uncertainty
þa, adv. and conj., then, when
þær, adv. and conj., there, where
þeah, adv., though
þeaw, noun, m., custom, practice
þegn, noun, m., thane, nobleman, retainer, warrior
þeod, noun, f., people, nation (cp. MnG Deutsch, Dietrich)
geþeode, noun, n., language
þeoden, noun, m., prince, lord (cp. Tolkien’s king of Rohan)
þeow, noun, m., slave, servant (cp. Wealhtheow in Beowulf)
þolian, verb, to suffer
þonne, adv., then
þrowian, verb, to suffer
þrym, noun, m., glory
þurfan, verb, to need
þurh, prep., through
uhta, noun, m. or f., period just before dawn (cp. MnDu ochtend)
uncuþ, adj., unknown, strange (cp. MnE uncouth)
ut, adv., out
wæl, noun, n., slaughter, carnage (cp. MnE Valkyrie)
wæstm, noun, m., fruit
wealdan, verb, wield, control (cp. MnE to wield, MnG Walter, Gewalt)
wealdend, noun, m., ruler, Lord
weard, noun, m., guardian (cp. MnE ward)
weaxan, verb, to grow (cp. MnE to wax)
wen, noun, f., expectation, hope (cp. MnG Wahnsinn)
wendan, verb, to go, turn, translate, change (cp. MnE to wend one’s way, Butts Wynd)
weorþan, verb, to become, happen (cp. MnG werden)
wer, noun, m., man (cp. MnE werewolf, L vir)
werod, noun, n., troop, company
wic, noun, n., abode (cp. place-names Ipswich, Norwich, Greenwich)
wif, noun, n., woman, wife
wig, noun, n., war, battle
wiga, noun, m., warrior (poet.)
wiht, noun, f. and n., creature, being (cp. MnG Wicht)
willan, verb, to want
wine, noun, m., friend, lord (poet., cp. names Edwin, Godwin)
gewinn, noun, n., war, battle, strife
winnan, verb, to struggle, fight
gewinnan, verb, to conquer, win
wita, noun, m., wise man, counsellor (cp. OE witenagemot, Anglo-Saxon national assembly)
witan, verb, to know
wite, noun, n., punishment
wiþ, prep., against, from, with
wlanc, adj., proud
wolcen, noun, n. or m., cloud, sky (cp. MnG Wolke)
woruld, noun, f., world
wraþ, adj., hostile (cp. MnE wroth)
wræcca, noun, m., wanderer, exile
wrecan, verb, to avenge
writan, verb, to write (cp. MnG ritzen)
wudu, noun, m., wood, forest, tree
wuldor, noun, n., glory
wundor, noun, n., wonder, miracle
wunian, verb, to dwell (cp. MnG wohnen)
wynn, noun, f., joy (cp. MnE winsome)
wyrcan, verb, to make, form, produce
wyrd, noun, f., fate, event (cp. MnE weird)
wyrm, noun, m., worm, serpent
wyrt, noun, f., herb, plant, vegetable (cp. MnE wort)
yfel, adj., evil (cp. MnG übel)
ymb, prep., about, concerning
yrmþu, noun, f., hardship
yrre, noun, n., anger
, noun, f., wave

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